How to cite


You are expected to base your academic paper on different sources. Using sources in your paper can help support your arguments and reasoning. Always name the sources you use in your paper, if not, you may be accused of plagiarism.

There are two ways of referencing sources:

Directly, by using quotations.

Indirectly, by summarising something you have read in your own words.

You need to cite the sources in both of these cases. If you do not give credentials when needed, you may be accused of plagiarism and have your paper dismissed on the basis of copying.

Every time you quote a source, it should be made visible in your text by using a reference. This consists of the author’s name, publication year, and pages (when using a direct quotation). Remember to give the complete information about the source in the reference list at the end of your paper.

There are different recommended reference styles for how to cite and make a reference list. Sometimes you will be told which style to use by your faculty or your mentor. The most important thing to remember is to be consistent about the style you use (i.e. never mix different styles in your paper).

Making sure your references and reference list are correct can be both difficult and time-consuming.  You can either write your references manually, or you can make use of a reference tool like EndNote that will help you make a reference list automatically.

Resources on how to cite:


The Citation Compass: bibliographic references. Made by USN, UiA and UiS.

Search and write: how to cite. Made by HiB, NHH, UiB and UiS.

VIKO: how to use sources. Made by NTNU.