How to cite

Students in the library

You are expected to base your academic paper on various sources. Citing sources in your paper support your arguments and reasoning. Always name the sources you use, if not, you may be accused of plagiarism.

There are two ways of referencing sources:

Directly, by using quotations.

Indirectly, by summarising something you have read in your own words.

You can read more and see examples on how to use both quotes at the Search & Write web site. You need to cite the sources in both of these cases. If you do not give credentials when needed, you may be accused of plagiarism and have your paper dismissed on the basis of copying.

Every time you quote a source, it should be made visible in your text by using a reference. This consists of the author’s name, publication year, and pages (when using a direct quotation). Remember to give the complete information about the source in the reference list at the end of your paper.

There are different recommended bibliographic styles for how to cite and make a reference list. Sometimes you will be told which style to use by your faculty or your mentor. The most important thing to remember is to be consistent about the style you use (i.e. never mix different styles in your paper).

Making sure your references and reference list are correct can be both difficult and time-consuming.  You can either write your references manually, or choose to use a reference management tool.

Resources on how to cite

The Citation Compass: bibliographic references. Made by USN, UiA and UiS.

Search & Write: how to cite. Made by HiB, NHH, UiB and UiS.

Using and Citing Sources. Made by NTNU.

Widely used styles

Oria's citation feature

Click the " (Citation) in the right column of Oria's search results. You also find it under Send to. Copy the citation (not to the clipboard) and paste it into a text document. Be aware of the chosen bibliographic style (for example APA or Chicago) and make sure to check citations for accuracy before including them in your work.