Open Access

Open Access (OA) refers to academic publications made available in full text on the internet free of charge. This can be done by publishing in specific OA-channels or by parallel publishing the article in an open research archive.

Many publishers choose to make some or all of their journals and books available free online. It is quite common for authors/institutions to pay to publish through these channels.

Publishing in OA-channels is also called Gold Open Access.

Why choose Open Access?

Impact: Studies indicate that Open Access publications are more downloaded, read, and cited more often than other articles (Swan, 2010).

Collaboration: Open Access offers every project member access to the same research foundations when working on a project with researches from different countries and institutions.

Fast publication: Open Access articles are electronic, and are consequently published faster than other articles.

Maintaining the copyright: Authors will maintain the right to republish their work, as well as to give others the right to use the material.


Parallel publishing in open research archives

If the journal/publisher accepts it, authors may parallel publish their academic publications in open research archives. USN Open Archive is an example of this kind of archive.

Usually, parallel publishing is only allowed for post-print versions of publications, meaning the last manuscript after a peer review. Information about publisher’s policies on parallel publishing is available in SHERPA/RoMEO .

Parallel publishing in open research archives is also called Green Open Access


Requirements for Open Access

The Norwegian government is increasingly encouraging Open Access publishing.

“In principle, it is the Government’s view that all research that is wholly or partially funded through public allocations must be made openly available.“, see Long-term perspectives – knowledge provides opportunity (Meld. St. 18 (2012–2013))

The Research Council of Norway requires that research results from projects completely or partly financed by them have to be open and freely available. Today the Research Council recommends parallel publishing as key initiative to secure access to research results.

The European Union's (EU) 7th framework programme for research (FP7) has initiated a pilot project for Open Access that requires parallel publishing or Gold OA publishing to research within certain subject areas. With Horizon 2020, the EUs 8th framework programme in force at the start of 2014, the requirement for Open Access will be applied to all subjects. Read more about Horizon 2020.